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Christopher Jones
Christopher Jones

Mushroom Cultivation In Nepal Pdf 20




Mushroom Cultivation in Nepal PDF 20


Mushroom Cultivation in Nepal PDF 20




Mushrooms are a type of higher fungus that are neither plant nor animal, but belong to their own separate biological kingdom Fungi. Mushrooms have been used as food and medicine for centuries, and have various nutritional and medicinal properties. Mushroom cultivation is a profitable and sustainable agro-industry that can provide income and food security to many people in developing countries like Nepal.


Nepal is a country with diverse climatic and ecological conditions, which are suitable for growing different types of mushrooms. Nepal has a rich diversity of mushroom species, but only a few of them have been studied and cultivated commercially. The most common cultivated mushrooms in Nepal are oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes), paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea), and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica).


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Mushroom cultivation in Nepal has increased significantly in the last decade, due to the increasing demand and awareness of the consumers, as well as the support from the government and non-government organizations. According to the statistics from the Department of Agriculture, the production of mushrooms in Nepal was 8,500 metric tons in 2019/20, which was about 8.23 times higher than that of 2010/11 . The major mushroom producing districts in Nepal are Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Kavrepalanchok, Makwanpur, Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Rupandehi, Kaski, and Morang.


However, mushroom cultivation in Nepal also faces many challenges and constraints, such as lack of scientific research and innovation, inadequate supply of quality spawn and substrate, high incidence of diseases and pests, low adoption of improved technology and management practices, unstable market price and competition, insufficient investment and infrastructure, and low awareness and skill among the farmers and consumers. These challenges need to be addressed by implementing appropriate policies and programs, enhancing research and extension services, promoting value addition and marketing, providing training and technical support, establishing linkages and networks among the stakeholders, and creating a conducive environment for the mushroom industry.


This article aims to provide an overview of the current status, scope, challenges, and prospects of mushroom cultivation in Nepal. It is based on the review of various secondary sources of information, such as journal articles , reports , websites , etc. The article is divided into four sections: introduction, methods, results and discussion, and conclusion. The article is written in HTML format, which is a markup language for creating web pages. The article can be viewed in any web browser or converted into PDF format using online tools.


Methods




The methods section describes the sources of information and the criteria for selecting them. The sources of information include web search results from Bing , which is a web search engine developed by Microsoft. Bing provides various types of search results, such as web pages , images , news , etc. The search query used for this article was "mushroom cultivation in Nepal pdf", which was entered on April 15th 2023. The search results were filtered by relevance and date. Only the results that were published within the last five years (2018-2023) were considered for this article. The results that were relevant to the topic of mushroom cultivation in Nepal were selected and analyzed. The results that were not relevant or reliable were excluded from this article.


Results and Discussion




The results and discussion section presents the main findings from the selected sources of information. The section is organized into four sub-sections: status of mushroom cultivation in Nepal; scope of mushroom cultivation in Nepal; challenges of mushroom cultivation in Nepal; and prospects of mushroom cultivation in Nepal.


Status of Mushroom Cultivation in Nepal




The status of mushroom cultivation in Nepal refers to the current situation and trends of mushroom production, consumption, trade, and policy in Nepal. According to the Department of Agriculture , the production of mushrooms in Nepal was 8,500 metric tons in 2019/20, which was about 8.23 times higher than that of 2010/11 (1,033 metric tons). The area under mushroom cultivation was 1,050 hectares in 2019/20, which was about 6.67 times higher than that of 2010/11 (158 hectares). The average yield of mushrooms in Nepal was 8.1 metric tons per hectare in 2019/20, which was about 1.24 times higher than that of 2010/11 (6.5 metric tons per hectare).


The major mushroom producing districts in Nepal are Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Kavrepalanchok, Makwanpur, Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Rupandehi, Kaski, and Morang. The most common cultivated mushrooms in Nepal are oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes), paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea), and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica). Oyster mushroom is the most popular and widely cultivated mushroom in Nepal, accounting for about 80% of the total production . Oyster mushroom can be grown throughout the year in various substrates, such as wheat straw, rice straw, maize stalks, sawdust, etc. Button mushroom is the second most popular and widely cultivated mushroom in Nepal, accounting for about 15% of the total production . Button mushroom can be grown in winter season in composted substrate, such as horse manure, wheat straw, etc. Shiitake mushroom is the third most popular and widely cultivated mushroom in Nepal, accounting for about 3% of the total production . Shiitake mushroom can be grown in spring and autumn season in sterilized substrate, such as sawdust, wood logs, etc. Paddy straw mushroom and milky mushroom are the other cultivated mushrooms in Nepal, accounting for about 1% each of the total production . Paddy straw mushroom can be grown in summer season in pasteurized substrate, such as paddy straw, banana leaves, etc. Milky mushroom can be grown in rainy season in sterilized substrate, such as paddy straw, cotton waste, etc.


The consumption of mushrooms in Nepal is increasing due to the growing awareness and preference of the consumers for healthy and nutritious food. Mushrooms are rich in protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Mushrooms also have medicinal properties that can help prevent and treat various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, etc. According to a survey conducted by Raut , the average per capita consumption of mushrooms in Nepal was 0.8 kg per year in 2019. The survey also found that the consumers preferred fresh mushrooms over dried or canned mushrooms. The consumers also preferred oyster mushroom over other types of mushrooms due to its availability and taste.


The trade of mushrooms in Nepal is mainly domestic rather than international. Mushrooms are sold in local markets or directly to consumers by the farmers or middlemen. Mushrooms are also supplied to hotels, restaurants, supermarkets, and institutional buyers. According to Raut , the average farm-gate price of mushrooms in Nepal was Rs. 120 per kg for oyster mushroom, Rs. 200 per kg for button mushroom, Rs. 300 per kg for shiitake mushroom, Rs. 150 per kg for paddy straw mushroom, and Rs. 180 per kg for milky mushroom in 2019. The average wholesale price of mushrooms in Nepal was Rs. 150 per kg for oyster mushroom, Rs. 250 per kg for button mushroom, Rs. 350 per kg for shiitake mushroom, Rs. 180 per kg for paddy straw mushroom, and Rs. 210 per kg for milky mushroom in 2019. The average retail price of mushrooms in Nepal was Rs. 200 per kg for oyster mushroom, Rs. 300 per kg for button mushroom, Rs. 400 per kg for shiitake mushroom, Rs. 220 per kg for paddy straw mushroom, and Rs. 250 per kg for milky mushroom in 2019.


The policy of mushrooms in Nepal is governed by the National Agriculture Policy (NAP) 2004 , which recognizes mushrooms as one of the high value crops that can contribute to the economic growth and poverty reduction of the country. The NAP aims to promote the production and marketing of mushrooms by providing technical support, quality control, infrastructure development, credit facilities, subsidy programs, and market information to the farmers and entrepreneurs. The NAP also aims to enhance the research and development of mushrooms by strengthening the capacity of research institutions, collaborating with national and international organizations, and conducting adaptive and applied research on various aspects of mushrooms.


Scope of Mushroom Cultivation in Nepal




Scope of Mushroom Cultivation in Nepal




The scope of mushroom cultivation in Nepal refers to the potential and opportunities of mushroom production, consumption, trade, and policy in Nepal. Mushroom cultivation in Nepal has a great scope due to the following reasons:


Nepal has a diverse climatic and ecological conditions, which are suitable for growing different types of mushrooms. Nepal has four seasons: spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Each season has its own advantages and disadvantages for mushroom cultivation. For example, spring and autumn are favorable for shiitake mushroom, summer is favorable for paddy straw mushroom, and winter is favorable for button mushroom. Nepal also has various altitudes, ranging from 60 m to 8,848 m above sea level. Each altitude has its own microclimate and substrate availability for mushroom cultivation. For example, lowland areas have abundant rice straw and banana leaves for paddy straw mushroom, mid-hill


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